Pet Law – Your responsibilities as a pet owner

law

Owning and caring for a pet can be a source of great enjoyment, but being a pet owner is also a huge responsibility and part of being a responsible owner includes knowing about and understanding the law surrounding pet ownership.  A surprising number of pet owners in the UK are not aware of the law, or of what they are required to provide for their pets to ensure their physical and mental well being. The PDSA’s Annual PAW Report 2016 showed that only 39% of pet owners surveyed were familiar with the Animal Welfare Act (this is an improvement on 35% from 2016) .

Although not all owners are familiar with the ins and outs of the actual Animal Welfare Act, the majority are providing everything their pet needs already. Sadly though, the RSPCA investigated a total of 149,604 complaints of animal abuse last year,  successfully prosecuted 744 people (down by 6.53%) and secured 628 disqualification orders following prosecution (down 4.46%)

The Animal Welfare Act

This came into force on April 6th 2007. It increased and introduced new penalties for acts of cruelty, neglect, mutilation, tail docking and animal fighting but importantly, it also introduced a duty of care for all pet owners. There is no particularly perfect way to care for pets because each pet will have it’s own individual needs, so it is up to you as the owner to find out what your particular pet’s needs are and ensure that you can meet them.

The Animal Welfare Act applies to anyone who is responsible for an animal whether permanently or temporarily and includes fines of up to £20,000, a maximum jail term of 51 weeks and a lifetime ban on some owners keeping pets.

Under Section 9  of the Animal Welfare Act 2006 you must  take all reasonable steps to ensure that you meet  the needs of your pet. I have listed the Welfare points in bold and added suggestions of how this can be achieved.

1. Provide a suitable environment and living space 

  • You pet will need a safe, clean environment with protection from hazards. If your pet is kept outside you need to check it frequently to ensure he or she is safe and well.
  • A comfortable, clean, dry, quiet, draught-free rest area.
  • Somewhere to hide in order to avoid things that frighten it.
  • Access to an appropriate place, away from its resting area, which it can use as a toilet area.
  • The living area should be large enough to be comfortable and provide sufficient space to move around in. Minimum cage sizes for small animals such as rabbitsguinea pigsrats and other rodents should be taken into consideration – the bigger the better!
  • The living area should be properly ventilated and at the correct temperature so that the pet does not get too hot or cold.
  • You should never leave your pet unattended in any situation, or for any period of time, that is likely to cause it distress or harm.
  • When transporting your pet, make sure it is comfortable, safe and secure at all times. The transport must be well ventilated and at the correct temperature. Your pet should have access to water if the journey is longer than a few hours (small furries and birds should have access to food and water all of the time). Bedding or flooring must be adequate and absorb any moisture if the pet goes to the toilet during transport. Dogs should be given toilet breaks on longer journeys, but ensure they cannot escape in an unfamiliar place! 

    This hutch is far too small

2. Provide a diet suitable for your pet’s needs

  • Your pet will need clean fresh drinking water at all times. If  you own a dog, this may mean taking water with you on walks where clean water is unlikely  to be available.
  • You must provide your pet with a balanced diet that is suited to its individual needs including its age, level of activity and health.
  • You must ensure that you feed the correct amount of food and that your pet is maintained at the correct weight and does not become underweight or overweight/obese.
  •  Your pet must be able to reach it’s food and water easily.
  • If you are uncertain what diet is best for your pet you should seek advice from a veterinary practice or suitably qualified pet care specialist.

3. Allow your pet to be able to exhibit normal behaviour patterns

  • Make sure your pet has enough things to do in it’s environment so that it does not become distressed or bored. This may mean adding toys, hiding places, climbing places, scratching posts, ladders, digging places, activity toys and feeders etc to suit your pet’s individual requirements. For example giving cats access to high places and scratching places.
  • Make sure your pet has access to safe toys and suitable objects to play with and, in the cases of some pets, chew on.
  • Ensure that your pet can rest undisturbed when it needs to – this may mean giving them a bed, crate or separate part in their living space where they will not be disturbed by people or other animals when they are resting.
  • Provide your pet with regular opportunities for exercise and play with people or other pets, depending on the species and needs of your pet.
  • Make sure that your pet has the opportunity to exercise properly every day. It is important to keep your pet fit, active and mentally stimulated. If you are unsure how much or what type of exercise to provide, seek advice from a veterinary nurse or suitably qualified pet care specialist.
  • Ensure that where appropriate you train your pet. Use only positive reward based training and avoid harsh, painful or frightening training methods. Training is not only necessary for a well behaved pet, it is great for mental stimulation and bonding. Although most people associate training with dogs, almost any pet can be trained including cats, rabbits, rodents and birds. (View our training article)

4. To house your pet with, or apart from, other animals 

  • Make sure that your pet is never left alone long enough for it to become distressed.
  • Some pets are solitary and do not need to live with other animals, for example some dogs, cats and certain types of rodents prefer to be live as a sole pet, but others such as rabbits, guinea pigs and rats are very social and should be housed with one or more companions of the same species.
  • If your pet lives on it’s own make sure that it has opportunities to spend enough time with people so that it does not become lonely or bored.
  • In the case of dogs, you should  ensure that your dog has plenty of opportunity to meet, socialise and play with other friendly dogs. Encourage your dog to be friendly towards other dogs from an early age. There are some dogs that just don’t like other dogs, so in this case you will need to ensure they have plenty of contact from you.
  • Animals should be given regular opportunities to socialise with people and, where appropriate for the species of pet, other animals from an early age.
  • It is important that if you keep more than one pet of the same or different species, that they get on well together and do not fight. They must have plenty of space to move away or hide from each other if necessary.
  • When pets live together adequate extra resources must be provided for some species, for example separate water bowls, food bowls, litter trays and toys. This will help avoid any conflict and tension over valuable resources. With dogs you may need to make an effort to provide them with 1-1 time with you and without the other dog.
  • If your dog is fearful of, or aggressive towards other dogs or people, or if certain social  interactions distress or frighten your dog we advise you seek appropriate advice from a qualified canine behaviourist.

Some animals need the company of others of their own species

5. To protect your pet from pain, suffering, injury, illness and disease

  • You need to take precautions to keep your pet safe from injury.
  • If you notice any changes in your pet’s behaviour or normal routine you should contact a veterinary practice and follow the advice you are given.
  • Check your pet regularly for signs of injury, disease or illness.
  • Maintain your pet’s condition, for example grooming and removing any knots in the coat (or get a groomer to do this for you) , making sure there is no faecal matter and urine on the the coat and making sure that your pet is fit and well.
  • If you recognise signs and symptoms of disease, suspect that your pet is in pain, ill or injured or if you have any concerns about its health or welfare contact a veterinary practice and follow the advice regarding treatment.
  • Ensure that your pet has regular veterinary health checks and that you provide preventative health care, where appropriate to the species of pet, for example vaccinations, booster vaccinations, worming, flea treatment and neutering.
  • Clean up after your pet including cleaning the toileting area and cage or enclosure regularly and with the appropriate, safe cleaning products to avoid disease and illness.
  • Protect your pets from ingesting or coming in to contact with harmful household items and substances such as medicines and foods intended for humans or other animals, cleaning products or antifreeze.  You should always seek veterinary advice if you suspect that your pet has eaten anything harmful.
  • Collars on cats and dogs should be of the correct size and fit, and should not cause any pain or discomfort; dogs are required to wear a collar and identity tag when in a public place by law.
  • If your pet is microchipped remember to keep the microchip database up to date with any changes in your contact details.
  • You should seek the advice of your veterinary practice before breeding your pet and take all reasonable steps to ensure that both the male and female pets are fit and healthy, with no inheritable diseases or conditions and that you will be able to find suitable homes for the offspring.

Every person that owns and/or looks after an animal must take this act into consideration so that they can be sure they are providing the right care for that animal at all times.  

Dog-specific Laws

As a responsible dog owner, there are several laws regarding dog ownership that you should be aware of and we have put the most important ones into this article.

Microchipping of Dogs (Control of Dogs Order)

All dogs in England must be microchipped and registered on an approved database by the time they are 8 weeks old. Breeders will need to microchip their puppies before they are transferred to a new owner. and new owners will be responsible for updating the microchip with their details. The owners/keepers of the dog must ensure that their details are kept up to date on the microchip database for their dog.

More information on Microchipping

Identification (Control of Dogs Order)

Your dog must wear an identity disk or tag on his or her collar (or harness) while in a public place i.e. anywhere outside your property. The tag must have, at the very least, your surname and address on it; a contact telephone number is optional. This law applies even if your dog is microchipped and there is a fine of up to £5000 that may be given if your dog is in a public place and not wearing some form of ID. This applies regardless of whether you are with your dog or not.

Dog Law ID Tag

Many dog owners are unaware that this is a legal requirement!

Public Spaces Protection Orders (Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act
and the Anti-Social Behaviour Crime & Policing Act)

Some public areas in England and Wales are covered by Public Spaces Protection Orders (PSPOs) – previously called Dog Control Orders (DCOs). There should be signs up designating these controlled areas

In public areas with PSPOs, you may have to:

  • Keep your dog on a lead – this may be all of the time or during certain hours and times of the year.
  • Put your dog on a lead if told to by a police officer, police community support officer or someone from the council.
  • Stop your dog going to certain places – like farmland or parts of a park
  • Limit the number of dogs you have with you (this applies to professional dog walkers too)

If you ignore a PSPO, you can be fined a £100 on the spot fixed penalty notice or up to £1,000 if it goes to court (You can’t be fined if you’re a registered blind dog owner).

Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act – Cleaning Up After Your Dog (Poop Scooping)

It is illegal to let your dog foul in a public place and not clean it up. Claiming that you are unaware that your dog had defecated or not having the correct equipment with you (i.e. poop bags), is not an acceptable excuse. Dog poo on pavements and in playing/green areas is not only unpleasant for other people and animals, but it also carries health hazards.

You can face an on the spot fixed penalty fine of £50 -£80 if you do not clean up after your dog. If you refuse to pay the fine you can be prosecuted and face a court appearance with a fine of up to £1000

Clean up after your dog. Not only is it against the law to let your dog foul in public places, it's unpleasant for other people too.

Clean up after your dog. Not only is it against the law to let your dog foul in public places, it’s unpleasant for other people too.

Stray Dogs (Environmental Protection Act)

If the owner fails to come forward and pay the Council’s fees within 7 days from date of seizure or service of a notice, the Council may rehome the dog or may have it put to sleep.

Yet another reason why your dog should wear an id tag and be microchipped.

Control Of Your Dog – Dangerous Dogs Act and the Anti-Social Behaviour Crime & Policing Act

It is against the law to let a dog be dangerously out of control. This now applies to both private property and public places.

  • You must be able to control your dog at all times, this means being able to call your dog back to you and making sure that he or she responds to you.
  • Your dog must not jump up at or chase other members of the public. Even the friendliest or smallest of dogs can cause damage by jumping up at someone, especially a child or an elderly person.
  • If there is any possibility that your dog is might attack another dog or a person he or she must be muzzled in public places.
  • You must not train or encourage your dog to attack/threaten people or other dogs.

Your dog is considered dangerously out of control if it:

1. Injures someone

2. Makes someone worried that it might injure them

3. It attacks a Guide Dog

A court may also consider your dog dangerously out of control if

1. It injures someone’s animal

2. If the owner of the animal thinks they could be injured if they tried to stop your dog attacking their animal

Depending on the severity of the offence you could be faced with a prison sentence of  between 6 months and 14 years and/or an unlimited fine. Your dog may be destroyed and you may not be able to own dogs in the future.

If your dog is likely to bite someone then you must take every precaution to prevent this from happening

If you think your dog might bite or attack someone then you must take every precaution to prevent this from happening

Walking and Travelling With your Dog (The Road Traffic Act)

It is an offence to have a dog on a designated road without it being held on a lead.

Dogs (or indeed any animal) travelling in vehicles should not be a nuisance or in any way distract the driver during a journey. When travelling in a vehicle, you must ensure that your dog is suitably restrained, either in a crate/carrier, behind a dog guard or by using a seatbelt harness. A dog that is loose in a car can cause an accident very easily.

If you are involved in a collision between your vehicle and a dog, you must stop, and the police must be informed. The driver of a car involved in a collision with a dog MUST stop and stay on the scene until the police have given the driver permission to leave, which usually happens after they have attended the scene (If you see someone hit a dog with a car and drive off, inform the police and give them as much detail as possible).

If the dog was loose at the time of the incident, the owner of the dog may be liable for any damage caused to the car or any injury caused to the driver (see third party liability below), which is another great reason to insure your pet.

Noise Nuisance (Environmental Protection Act)

A barking dog can be classed as a statutory nuisance if it is intrusive and irritating and is affecting someone’s quiet enjoyment of their property. If a complaint is made to the local authority, they may serve a Noise Abatement Notice.  For more information read our barking dogs article.

Causing Distress to Farm Animals (Protection of Livestock Act)

You must never let your dog off the lead anywhere near livestock (farm animals/horses) unless you can be absolutely sure that he or she won’t go anywhere near them. You are responsible for what your dog does, and if your dog is worrying livestock -“Worrying” means attacking, chasing in a way that could cause injury, suffering, abortion or loss of produce, or simply being loose (not on lead or otherwise under close control) in a field or enclosure containing livestock -,  you can be fined up to £1,000 plus compensation to the farmer.

You could also be prosecuted under the Dangerous Dogs Act, meaning a much harsher sentence for you and possibly also your dog, if he or she was deemed to be dangerously out of control.

farm

Farm animals get worried by dogs very easily

Third Party Liability (Animals Act and Dangerous Dogs Act)

The keeper of a dog is strictly liable for any damage caused by the dog in certain circumstances. This can include destruction of property and personal injury, illness or death (including the damage done to a person or their car if they hit your dog in the road!) It is recommended that you take out third party insurance liability cover as a precaution.

Please note

The above information is only a guideline of the laws involved in pet ownership, for further and more in-depth information on dog law we recommend that you visit www.legislation.gov.uk

The law surrounding dog ownership can be very complicated especially if a dog has injured someone. If you are concerned or you are involved in a case about your own dog, we recommend that you contact a dog law specialist as soon as possible for advice.

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National Pet Month April 2017


NPM 2017

National Pet Month has been going strong in the UK for 27 years! It is all about celebrating the wonderful impact pets have on our lives and promoting responsible pet ownership. It is supported by veterinary teams, animal therapy providers, animal charities, animal experts and pet shops from all over the UK.

  • Promote responsible pet ownership
  • Raise awareness of the benefits of owning a pet
  • Increase awareness of the roles of pet care specialists
  • Highlight the value of assistance and working companion animals.

There will be events going on for pet lovers this month, including the All About Dogs Show at Newbury Showground 8th-9th  April. You can access lots of pet care information on the Castle Vets Blog and free webinars about pet care are available to pet owners from Pet Webinars , with topics including pet care, diabetes, vaccines, hyperthyroidism and reptile care.

Top 10 Tips For Responsible Pet Owners

1. Think carefully before getting a pet and learn about its special requirements

The prospect of getting a new pet can be very exciting and it is a wonderful feeling to be a proud owner. Anyone who has taken on a pet will know that within a matter of hours you are completely hooked, but there are a few things to think about before your commit to and bring home your new bundle of fun and cuteness.

  • Are you ready for a pet and who in the household will look after it ?
  • The species, size and breed of pet need to be considered carefully to ensure they will fit into your lifestyle. For example, if you want something as energetic as a Husky,  Collie, Labrador or Dalmation, you need to make sure you have time to exercise it properly for at least 2-3 hours a day. If you want Rabbits (you have to have at least 2 together), you need to make sure you have space for a large hutch and a large run and/or secure garden. Some cat breeds really don’t enjoy being left alone all day and may become destructive.
  • The potential costs involved with keeping a pet can be huge! The average annual costs of owning a pet have been estimated at £1000 – £1500 for a dog, around £1200 for a cat, £400 – £500 for a ferret, £500-£600 for a rabbit and £300-£400 for a guinea pig.
  • Your pet will need exercise, no matter what species it is. Do you have enough time to devote to ensuring that you can meet your chosen pet’s requirements? Can you provide suitable housing and exercise areas for your pet?

Read our articles Think before you buy that pet and How to choose a new pet and where to get it from before your rush into a decision.

breeds copy

2. Ensure your pet is sociable and well trained

All pets can be trained and socialised, but it does take time and effort on your part. Dogs in particular must have the correct socialisation and training to ensure that they are well mannered and under control around other animals and people; this is as important for the small breeds as it is for the larger ones! You can read more about training your pet in this article

3. Provide a nutritious, well balanced diet to ensure your pet remains fit and healthy

It is very important that your pet receives the correct type and amount of food appropriate for his or her species, size and age. You must also ensure that your pet is not too thin or does not become overweight. Ask your veterinary nurse if you have any questions about what and how much your pet should be eating. Have a look at these articles for general advice on feeding Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

fatpet

4. Provide suitable housing and bedding

It is important to provide a safe, comfortable living area for your pet at the correct temperature for their species. For dogs and cats, this is usually as simple as providing a cosy bed in an area of your home. For other species, always buy the biggest cage, hutch, tank or vivarium that you can afford and have space for. Did you know that many of the rodent cages, reptile tanks and rabbit/guinea pig hutches that are sold in pet shops are far too small? As a general rule every cage must be tall enough for the animal to stand up fully on his or her hind legs to stretch up completely.

  • Rabbits should have a hutch that is big enough for him or her to hop 3 times across the length and enable them to stand up on their hind legs for the average pair of rabbits this means a hutch that is at least 6 ft x 2 ft x 2 ft plus an exercise run of at least 8ft x 6ft.
  • Guinea Pigs need a hutch that is at least 4 ft x 2ft x 1.5 ft, plus an exercise run
  • Rats need cages that are a minimum of  2.5 ft x 1.3 ft x 1.5 ft for a pair of rats
This rabbit hutch is far too small!

This rabbit hutch is far too small!

5. Clean up after your pet and worm it regularly (where appropriate)

Ensure that you clean up any urine and faeces daily from litter trays, hutches, cages and vivariums, as well as cleaning up after your dog on walks. Doing this will help prevent illness, infection, parasites and disease from occurring or being transmitted between pets (and potentially people).  Check your pet’s bottom/genital area every day to ensure this is free from faeces and urine and clean them up if necessary. Worming is very important for dogs and cats and should be done at least 4 times a year. Read our article for more information on Why worming is important.

6. Protect against disease

We recommend that dogs, cats and rabbits receive their annual vaccinations to protect them against highly contagious and potentially fatal diseases. Some diseases, such as Leptospirosis in dogs, can also be transmitted to humans (although it is rare). There is a lot of debate over whether vaccinations are always necessary for your pet, so please read our articles on why we recommend them, before you make up your mind.

Protecting your pet from disease isn’t all about vaccinations; you can also protect your pet from disease by

  • Taking him or her to the vet for an annual health check. This will enable the vet to check your pet over and pick up any problems early and before they become too serious.
  • Check your pet over thoroughly every day. Look out for lumps, cuts, scratches and lameness as well as any behavioural changes that may indicate a problem.
  • Ensuring you prevent parasite infestations such as  worms and fleas which can have a big impact on the health of your pet. Speak to your veterinary nurse about which products are best suited to your pet.
  • Ensuring your pet does not become obese. Excessive weight puts pressure on the organs and joints in an animal’s body, making everything work harder and increasing the risk of disease.

cat ok

7. Prevent unwanted litters and neuter your pet when appropriate

The decision about whether to have your pet neutered or not is likely to be one of the biggest that you make as a pet owner. There is no doubt that neutering your pet can have really great benefits to their health and you will also be doing your bit to help the growing crisis of the thousands of pets already in rescue centres around the country, because there aren’t enough homes to go around. However, for many different reasons, not all pet owners (especially dog owners) will want to have their pets neutered and as long as these unneutered pets are managed responsibly, this decision is fine. We want you to be well informed so read our article on The pros and cons of neutering for more information.

8. Groom your pet regularly

Grooming your pet will not only keep his or her coat looking lovely, but also remove any uncomfortable knots and enable you to check for any lumps, bumps, cuts and scratches. Grooming can be a very good bonding exercise and most pets will tolerate it well if started at an early age.

600px-cat-being-groomed

9. Ensure your pet is properly identified

Microchipping

It is particularly important to have dogs and cats microchipped, but did you know that almost any species of animal can be microchipped?

  • on 6th April 2016 it became a legal requirement for ALL dogs in England to be microchipped and registered on an approved database.
  • Puppies must be microchipped and registered by the breeder before they go to their new home and by the time they are 8 weeks old (this applies to all puppies, whether intentionally bred or an accidental litter).
  • When the puppies or dogs of any age go to a new home, the new owner will need to transfer the microchip details to their own name and address by filling out a form with the current owner.
  • It is the responsibility of the owner/keeper of the dog to ensure that the database information such as name address and contact numbers are kept up to date.

Identification Tags 

  • It is a legal requirement for every dog to be wearing an identification tag/disk with the owner’s contact number, address and postcode on it, when the dog is out in a public area. This applies even if the dog is already microchipped and there is a very large fine for non-compliance.

10. Ensure you can control your dog

It is against the law to let a dog be dangerously out of control. This now applies to both private property and public places. You can be prosecuted and you dog could potentially be put down if he or she is proven to be out of control!

  • You must be able to control your dog at all times, this means being able to call your dog back to you and making sure that he or she responds to you.
  • Your dog must not jump up at or chase other members of the public. Even the friendliest or smallest of dogs can cause damage by jumping up at someone, especially a child or an elderly person.
  • If there is any possibility that your dog is might attack another dog or a person he or she must be muzzled in public places.
  • You must not train or encourage your dog to attack/threaten people or other dogs.

Please read our article if your would like to know more about the laws of dog ownership in the UK

11. Take out pet insurance if possible

Pet Insurance can help cover against any unexpected and costly veterinary fees if your pet is injured or becomes unwell. Most types of pets can be insured, but it is worth doing plenty of research and looking around before you commit to a particular pet insurance company. You can read our article for more information about pet insurance.

cartoons_f05

The veterinary nursing team at Castle Vets offer free consultations, by appointment, for you to discuss any aspect of your pet’s care and wellbeing to ensure that you meet all of his or her individual needs. Our nurses are also happy to help anyone who is thinking about getting a pet and can offer advice about what type and breed of pet may fit in with your lifestyle, how to look after a pet properly and the costs that may be involved with pet ownership.

You can find out more about events that may be happening near you by visiting the National Pet Month Website or via their Facebook page

Fun Pet Facts

For the start of the year, I thought I would share some pet facts that we have picked up over the years in practice.

According to the PDSA Animal Wellbeing (PAW) Report 2016 people 51% of households in the UK own pets, with an estimated population of 9.4 million dogs, 11 million cats and 1.5 million rabbits.

Rabbits have near 360-degree vision and can even see behind them. Their only blind spot right is right in front of their nose.

garden-700174_1920

An Ailurophile is someone who likes cats and a Cynophile is someone who prefers dogs

Guinea pigs are not related to pigs and do not originate from Guinea in West Africa. They are actually rodents and come from South America.

A dog or cat nose print is as unique as a human fingerprint

Approximately 1/3 of a dog’s brain mass is devoted to smell (compared to being only 5% in humans!) and their sense of smell is between 1000 and 10000000 times more sensitive than ours is, depending on the dog breed.

Dog nose

According to Guinness World Records, the oldest cat ever was ‘Crème Puff’ who lived to be an amazing 38 years old! The greatest reliable age recorded for a dog is 29 years 5 months for an Australian cattle-dog named Bluey.

Almost all animals can be taught to respond to commands using reward-based training, including dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, birds, horses and rodents.

Rabbits have very strong back legs, allowing them to jump up to one meter high and three meters long.

Adult cats very rarely meow to communicate with each other, but they soon learn that meowing at their human will get them extra attention and food.

cat_highfive719353

Goldfish can live for over 20 years with the proper care and environment. the oldest living goldfish was reported to be 45 years old.

Happy rabbits will often jump and skip around in joy – it’s called a binky.

Fish can see colors and some scientist believe that fish may even be able to see more colors than humans.

goldfish

Research by the University Of Minnesota concluded that cat owners are much less likely to suffer from a stroke.

Chinchillas shed their fur in big clumps if they feel scared or threatened, to help them escape from predators.

Guinea Pig world records include running 10 metres in 8.81 seconds and jumping a gap of 48cm.

guineapig190

Pet ownership can help make you more able to deal with pain. One study found that stroking a dog could halve the amount of pain relief needed by a patient recovering from a joint replacement operation.

A cat’s tongue is  lined with tiny elevated backwards hooks that help to hold prey in place, which is why it feels rough if they lick you.

The swedish have a ‘showjumping’ competition for rabbits called Kaninhoppning.

Tortoiseshell cats are nearly always female because the coat colour is dependent on the female chromosomes XX. Because males carry the XY chromosomes, tortoiseshell males are extremely rare.

Stroking cat

Some common terms for groups of animals – A clowder or comfort of cats, a kennel or pack of dogs, a business of ferrets, a chatter of budgerigars, a warren of rabbits and a troubling of goldfish.

Reptiles are ectothermic, which means that they need to warm their bodies from external sources such as the sun, or in the case of pets a heat lamp or rock. This is because they cannot regulate their body temperature in the same way that other animals and people can.

Budgies have monocular vision, which means they use each eye independently.

Blue_male_budgie

The smell of catnip can cause cats to exhibit behaviours that are commonly seen in in-season female cats, including rubbing their head and body on the herb, jumping and rolling around, vocalizing and drooling. Response to catnip is inherited and only about 70% of cats will react to it. Catnip does not affect kittens until they reach sexual maturity.

One in four pet owners sign their pet’s name on christmas and other greetings cards

Ancient Romans considered the rat good luck, and in China the rat is considered a sign of prosperity.

Cutie_Our_Pet_Rat

Make Some Pet Care Resolutions For the New Year

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As this year comes to an end, many of us will be looking forward to the coming year and what we hope to achieve (or avoid!). Thoughts are often about a new diet and getting more exercise, to make up for any holiday indulgences, or making more time for ourselves and our families. Here are some ideas and tips to enhance the health and wellbeing of your pets. Continue reading

Make Training Fun For Your & Your Pets

New Tricks

Why Should We Train Our Pets?

We all know that basic training for dogs is a necessity, but training is great for all types of pets including dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rodents, birds and horses. Not only can it be lots of fun, but it is also mentally stimulating, a great form of exercise and it can also strengthen the bond between you and your pet. New tricks are a great way of showing off how clever your pet is to other people and also a brilliant way for children to be involved with pet care.
Continue reading

Pet Emergencies – What To Do

NMCSHH30

We all hope our pets will never need emergency treatment, but sadly some will and emergencies always seem to happen at the most inconvenient time.

The first and most important thing in an emergency is to check that it is safe for YOU to help the animal. You will do no good if you are injured, while trying to help. Remember that

  • Animals in pain or shock, or animals that are frightened, may bite, scratch or kick whoever is trying to help (even their much loved owners)
  • If your pet has been involved in a road traffic accident, make sure it is safe for you to go on to the road.
  • Don’t jump into water after a pet, unless you are sure it is safe to do so. Many pet owners get themselves into serious trouble and often need rescuing themselves, after jumping into water when trying to rescue pets – pets which usually manage to get themselves out of difficulty with a little encouragement from dry land!
  • If your pet has been attacked by a dog or another animal, make sure you are not going to get bitten as well.

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Rabbit & Rodent Dental Problems

rabbits and rodents

At Castle Vets in Reading, we often see rabbits and rodents with a variety of dental problems. The teeth of most animals (including humans) stop growing after the initial development period, but rabbits, chinchillas, guinea pigs and rodents have teeth that grow continuously throughout their lives, which means dental problems will develop if these animals are unable to grind their teeth down through feeding and chewing.

Common causes of dental problems

  • Insufficient gnawing materials – these are needed so that the pet can grind and wear their teeth down naturally as they grow.
  • Poor nutrition during development can lead to dental and bone abnormalities.
  • Poor nutrition after the growth period leads to dental abnormalities.
  • Traumatic injury and/or broken teeth can lead to malocclusion (teeth not aligning properly).
  • Cavities and periodontal disease caused by a poor diet and bacteria passed on from owners.
  • Genetic abnormalities passed on from the parents (this is becoming much more common in rabbits because of poor breeding standards by irresponsible owners).

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