We all hope our pets will never need emergency treatment, but sadly some will and emergencies always seem to happen at the most inconvenient time.
The first and most important thing in an emergency is to check that it is safe for YOU to help the animal. You will do no good if you are injured, while trying to help. Remember that
- Animals in pain or shock, or animals that are frightened, may bite, scratch or kick whoever is trying to help (even their much loved owners)
- If your pet has been involved in a road traffic accident, make sure it is safe for you to go on to the road.
- Don’t jump into water after a pet, unless you are sure it is safe to do so. Many pet owners get themselves into serious trouble and often need rescuing themselves, after jumping into water when trying to rescue pets – pets which usually manage to get themselves out of difficulty with a little encouragement from dry land!
- If your pet has been attacked by a dog or another animal, make sure you are not going to get bitten as well.
What You Need To Do In An Emergency
- Check the area is safe for you
- If your pet is in pain and there is a danger that you may get bitten or scratched, make sure you protect yourself. How you do this will greatly depend on the type of injury or problem your pet is having; for dogs that are not having breathing difficulties, a makeshift muzzle can be made from a tie, dog lead or strong string, alternatively you can place a rolled towel (or jacket) over the dog’s neck and ears to give you a bit of a buffer. Cats and small animals can be gently wrapped in a towel or blanket to prevent scratching, if their injuries will allow.
- Keep calm and keep talking to your pet to reassure them
- Assess the problem or injuries and do what you can for your pet
- Contact your veterinary practice for advice, if they know you are coming they can prepare for your pet’s arrival and treatment can be started sooner. If you are phoning outside of normal hours make sure you listen carefully about where you need to take your pet; you may be directed to a different practice depending on who provides veterinary cover out of hours.
- If you think you may have difficulty paying for emergency treatment don’t panic and be honest with your vet about your financial situation. Your vet will be able to put you in touch with animal charities that may be able to help you with the treatment costs.
Transporting Your Pet
If your dog is able to walk or hobble, let it. Often dogs are transported less painfully, and with much less stress, if they can move themselves rather than being carried. If your dog is unable to walk and is too big to be carried by a single person, you can make a stretcher using a large towel, blanket or even the parcel shelf from your car with one person carrying each end.
For cats and small animals, it is always best to place them in a secure carrier or a box as they will feel much more secure if they can hide away.
If you are unable to move your pet, contact your veterinary practice because they may be able to come out to you at home.
A Few Common Pet Emergencies And How To Deal With Them
There are so many potential emergency situations that it would be difficult to list them all, but the following are some of the most common that we see. If you are in any doubt about your pet’s health contact your vet for advice as soon as possible.
Breathing problems, Coughing or Choking – Breathing problem can be caused by many things including trauma, heart or lung disease, allergic reactions, cancers and foreign bodies in the throat. Breathing problems are potentially life-threatening, so contact your vet as soon as possible if your pet is having difficulty breathing
Burns – The most common burns around the home will be caused by hot liquids such as boiling water or candle wax, prolonged contact with a hot surface such as a radiator, or by flames. Occasionally a pet may suffer an electrical burn if they chew through a cable or a chemical burn from a household cleaner such as bleach. Before acting, make sure the area is safe for you.
- For burns caused by heat; if the wound is still hot you can apply a cold compress to the wound using a clean wet towel or cloth, when the wound has cooled apply a sterile dressing to cover it.
- For burns caused by chemicals; prevent your pet from cleaning itself and rinse the affected area with water to clean off the substance.
- For electrical burns; ensure that the power is switched off to prevent further injury to your pet or yourself. A sterile dressing can be applied if you can see external burns, however these burns are usually in and around the mouth.
In all cases contact your vet immediately so that your pet can be seen quickly because burns can often be worse than they look and there is a risk of infection.
Cystitis (Trouble passing urine) or Completely Unable to Pass Urine – If you notice your pet is having difficulty passing urine or you notice blood in the urine, make an appointment with your vet as soon as possible. Cystitis is a very painful and serious condition for any animal.
If you notice that your pet cannot pass urine at all seek veterinary advice immediately. Blocked urinary tracts can be a life-threatening emergency (this is most common in male cats).
Flystrike – This is usually a summer problem but can occur at any time of the year if it is warm enough for flies to be about. Flies lay their eggs on an animal and the maggots that hatch, then eat the flesh of the animal. Flystrike mainly affects rabbits, but it is possible for other pets such as dogs and cats to be affected too. The flies are attracted to soiled bottoms, faeces and wounds and the condition is more likely to occur in overweight or poorly animals that cannot groom themselves. If you notice maggots on your pet contact your vet immediately.
Gastric dilatation and volvulus –GDV, also known as Gastric Torsion or bloat (Dogs) – This is a life-threatening condition that is most commonly seen in large breed and/or deep-chested dogs and usually occurs a few hours after a dog has eaten. The stomach twists over on itself and distends with gas (a torsion) or in some dogs the stomach distends with gas build up but doesn’t twist (bloat). This is an emergency and your pet must be seen by the vet immediately. Symptoms can include
- Breathing rapidly and with more effort
- Vomiting white froth or retching.
- Enlarged/swollen abdomen
- Pale gums
Gut stasis (Rabbits) – This happens when the normal movements of the intestines either slow down or stop all together, bacteria then build up within the intestines which results in distension or bloating. Gut stasis can occur for a variety of reasons, including poor diet, stress, dehydration, pain or a problem caused by another underlying disorder or illness If it is left untreated it can quickly result in a painful death. If your rabbit stops eating or producing feces for 12 hours or more, you should consider the condition an emergency and contact your vet immediately. Symptoms of gut stasis include
- Very small fecal pellets or a complete lack of pellets
- In some cases, very small fecal pellets will be encased in clear or yellowish mucus.
- Loss of appetite
- Not wanting to move
- Grinding teeth (pain sign)
Poisoning – There are many things that are toxic to our pets including plants, accidentally ingested human medications, chocolate, grapes/raisins/sultanas, antifreeze, rodent poisons, pesticides etc. the list is very long! (See my previous article for more information). Paracetamol and ibuprofen are extremely toxic and often given by misinformed owners who are trying to help their pets. Permethrin, which is commonly found in many over the counter ‘spot-on’ flea treatments for dogs is also very toxic to cats and unfortunately we see many cases where these have been mistakenly applied to cats.
If you suspect that your pet has eaten something he or she shouldn’t of , or you have accidentally applied or given the wrong treatment or medicine, please contact your vet immediately for advice. Try to give your vet as much information as possible such as exactly what and how much was eaten, the time it was eaten and with medicines or treatments, what strength they were.
Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) and Broken Bones – If you think your pet has been hit by a car, have him or her examined by a vet as soon as possible, because even if they have no external wounds they may have internal bleeding and damage.
If you suspect your pet has a broken a bone or has a head injury seek veterinary help as soon as possible.
Try not to touch or manipulate the injured area if possible and take great care when moving and transporting your pet.
Seizures (Fits) – Animals having a seizure will often collapse onto their side, start to shake using their whole body, their legs may be in motion (paddling) and they will often loose control of their bladder and bowels. Most animals recover quickly from a seizure so there is often no need to rush them to the vet immediately; although we do recommend that you call the vet to advise them of the situation and find out what you should do next. However, if you suspect that your pet has eaten something toxic or you applied a treatment prior to the seizure contact your vet immediately as they will likely want to examine your pet.
During a seizure
- Do not attempt to move or handle your pet in any way during a fit, unless the pet is in immediate danger of further injury i,e, to close to a fireplace or in danger of hitting their head on something, if necessary move any furniture out of the way to avoid further injury
- Try to reduce mental and sensory stimulation by
1. Making the room as dark and quiet as possible – close curtains or blinds and turn off the tv/radio.
2. Not stroking or touching your pet – this will stimulate the brain further, possibly extending the duration of the fit
3. Try to time the fit if possible
Prolonged fitting is an emergency (5 minutes and longer). You should contact your vet immediately if you dog does not stop fitting within 5 minutes, as he or she may need medical help.
Vomiting and Diarrhoea – In healthy adult dogs and cats a single episode of vomiting and/or mild diarrhoea is normally not a concern. However, if your pet is having several episodes of vomiting or diarrhoea, especially if it is a puppy, kitten or older pet, or the vomit or diarrhoea contains blood, please contact your vet as soon as possible for advice.
Wounds – Wounds can happen for a variety of reasons and may be large or small, some pets may injure themselves while out and about, while others may have been bitten or scratched by another animal. Wounds on paws, ears and tails may bleed profusely and make a great deal of mess, so you will need to apply pressure to these if possible.
If the wound is dirty you can help clean it by gently pouring tepid water over the area (if your pet will let you).
If there is a foreign or penetrating object in the wound (e.g. thorn or piece of wood), do not attempt to remove it yourself.
Wounds can be covered with a sterile dressing and bandage from a first aid box or any clean material in an emergency. Remember not to make a bandage too tight. Make an appointment with your vet to have the wound checked so that infection can be prevented and sutures can be put in if necessary.
If the wound is bleeding you can apply pressure using some clean material or a bandage (Sanitary pads will work well in an emergency). NEVER use anything like a tourniquet to stop bleeding as this can often lead to severe tissue damage. Once a bandage has been put on, do not remove it to check the wound as you may remove any clots that have started to form, if blood is striking through the original dressing add another layer on top. Seek veterinary help as soon as possible for bleeding wounds.
First Aid Kits For Pets
There are lots of first aid kits available to buy for pets from various places and with various costs. But honestly, you don’t need to buy kits with fancy packaging that are labeled as pet first aid kits, in fact you can buy everything you need direct from your vet practice or local pharmacy for half the cost of a fancy pet first aid kit! (of course you will need to find something suitable to keep it in though)
What you have in your pet first aid kit is entirely up to you, but this is what I have in mine and it is a good basic kit.
- Sterile Dressing Pads (i.e. Melolin) – this can be placed directly onto a wound (shiny side down)
- Padding Bandage (i.e. Soffban) – to go between the dressing pad and the next layer
- Conforming bandage (i.e. KBand/wow) – to go over the padded layer and apply a little tension. You can also use this bandage to make a tie-muzzle if needed.
- Micropore Tape – Sticky tape dressing that can be used to secure dressing pads in areas that can’t be bandaged.
- Cohesive Bandage (i.e. Vetwrap) – sticks to itself but nothing else. Top and protective layer (optional)
- Sterile Water pods
- Scissors – (round ended) to cut the bandages if necessary.
Other optional useful bits for a pet first aid kit could include
- Restraining aids i.e. a dog lead and a muzzle
- Digital thermometer and lubricant (KY Jelly will work) – this may be useful if you ever need to monitor your pet’s temperature. Remember that animal temperatures are taken rectally, do not put thermometers into your pet’s mouth. If you make an appointment with your veterinary nurse they will be able to show you how to take a rectal temperature reading from your pet. (alternatively you can use an ear thermometer, but if not used properly the reading may not be accurate)
- Cotton wool
- Latex disposable gloves
- Blanket or space blanket.
- Tick hook
- Vet’s contact number and emergency vet contact number