National Microchipping Month June 2015

NMMJune banner

June is National Microchipping Month; a campaign to encourage responsible ownership through microchipping as a method of permanent pet identification. Almost any species of animal can be microchipped including dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, ferrets, tortoises and even birds.

Every year in the UK thousands of pets go missing and, according to a report from Dogs Trust, 110,000 stray dogs were handled by local authorities last year (sadly we do not have national figures for cats and other pets). Between January and May this year, Castle Vets have received reports of 64 missing cats, 28 missing dogs and 1 missing guinea pig. Only 36 of these pets were microchipped and of these. 2 owners did not know/have the microchip number and 1 had never sent off the paperwork to register the microchip. Over the past 2 weeks alone, we have had 7 stray cats and 2 stray dogs brought in to us and none of these were microchipped, so it will be very difficult to reunite them with their owners. Continue reading


Rabbit Awareness – Caring For Your Rabbit

Rabbits are becoming more popular as pets in the UK and we now have many devoted bunny owners visiting the practice each week. These small furries make wonderful pets in the right hands and come in many different sizes and colours, so there is something for everyone; in fact the British Rabbit Council recognises 50 different breeds and over 500 varieties! Rabbits are social, intelligent and inquisitive creatures who need loving, devoted and patient owners who are prepared to spend plenty of time with them, provide plenty of space and lots of opportunities to play. Although rabbits are not generally expensive to buy, they are not cheap to look after properly and often cost at least as much as a cat or small dog in terms of routine healthcare and vaccinations; they can also live for 8–12 years so they are definitely a long-term commitment.

Rabbits Of the World (Intervet)

Rabbits Need Company

Rabbits are very social animals and live in large groups in the wild, so it is very important for them to have the company of at least one other rabbit. You can keep rabbits in groups of 2 or more of the same sex or neutered.

Rabbits and guinea pigs do not make good companions for each other, they have different dietary needs, they communicate in different ways, the rabbit may injure or bully the guinea pig and rabbits carry bacteria which can cause respiratory disease in guinea pigs.


Most rabbits love human company and gentle handling and stroking, but remember that because they are a ‘prey’ animal being picked up and held can sometimes be very scary. When you pick your rabbit up, make sure you place one hand under their chest and use the other to fully support the hindquarter while cuddling them to you; if you have children it is always a good idea to have them handle the rabbit while they are sat on the floor so the rabbit will not get injured if he or she jumps out of the child’s arms.


Traditionally rabbits have always been kept in hutches in the garden, however they are just as happy (if not happier) when kept indoors. In the wild, rabbits can cover an area equivalent to 30 football pitches so they are not designed to live in a confined space because they need to run, jump, explore and share companionship with their own kind; their accommodation must be big enough to allow them to display these natural behaviours.

The RWAF (Rabbit Welfare Association & Fund) recommends a minimum hutch size of 6′ x 2′ x 2′, which allows rabbits some room to move, stand on their hind legs and have enough space for the food, toilet and sleeping areas to be kept apart. Your rabbit should also have access to a secure exercise area or run measuring at least 8′ x 4′.

There is a wide range of hutches and indoor accommodation available for rabbits, but bear in mind that most of what is available is often far too small. Bigger is better where the hutch and exercise spaces are concerned so our advice is to get the biggest for your budget.

Hay and straw are generally good materials for bedding and the bottom of the housing can be lined with newspaper. Wood shavings and sawdust are not recommended as they have been linked to respiratory problems. Other popular bedding materials include

  • Fitch – recycled perforated paper, it is very absorbent and is actually marketed for horses.
  • Finacard – dust free cardboard bedding.
  • Megazorb – made from wood pulp, highly absorbent and safe for use with small animals.
  • Fleece/Vetbed/Towels – commonly used for indoor rabbits but you do need to supply an area for foraging in (i.e., hay) if using these materials.

The cage and exercise areas, including the wire mesh, feeding bowls, bottles and toys should be thoroughly cleaned once a week using a pet safe disinfectant. Rinse the cage and allow it to dry properly before putting your rabbits back inside.

This hutch is far too small

This hutch is far too small


Providing the correct nutrition for you rabbits is very important and many of the health problems that we see in rabbits are caused by or related to poor nutrition.  For more information see out blog on Feeding Rabbits for Good Health

what rabbits should eat


Exercise is very important for rabbits and they should have at least 3-4 hours of free run a day and will be most active in early morning and evening. They have evolved to run fast in short bursts and dodge and twist to escape predators, so their exercise area should be long enough and high enough to let them move freely. Rabbits often do a run, jump and twist manoeuvre when they are happy or excited – It’s called a binky!

The exercise space should include some shade from the sun and shelter in case the weather is windy or wet. It also needs to be secure to protect your bunnies from getting into trouble, escaping or being attacked by predators.

You will also need to provide hiding places such as tunnels or pipes to crawl through and cardboard boxes to hide in or chew.

A happy Binkying Bunny Rabbit

Mental Stimulation

Rabbits are much more intelligent than people give them credit for and they like to play games that simulate to their natural tendencies. Good games include

  • Hide and seek for food – Hiding favourite food and treats around their enclosure for them to find will help keep them active and prevent boredom. You can also stuff cardboard tubes with flavoured hay and treats.
  • Bunny bowling – Use toy bowling pins and encourage them to knock them over (make sure they don’t chew them though.
  • Bunny fetch – Some rabbits like picking things up with their teeth and flicking them away (for you to retrieve!) You can use rolled up paper, cardboard tubes or small bird/cat toys for your rabbits.
  • Digging – Provide some boxes full of shredded or scrunched up paper and cardboard tunnels or a large solid plant pot with some dirt in it for digging.

Other toys can include untreated wood products, hard plastic baby toys, plastic balls with bells inside, cereal boxes, Please do not give your rabbit cherry wood, redwood and peach wood as these can be toxic.

Health Checks, Parasite Control and Vaccinations

At Castle Vets, we recommend rabbits have a health check with the vet at least twice a year to ensure they remain healthy

Annual Vaccinations

Myxomatosis: This is transmitted to rabbits by flying and biting insects such as mosquitos, rabbit fleas and mites. It causes severe swelling of the lips , eyelids, ears and genitals. Treatment is rarely successful and rabbits with this disease are often euthanased.

Viral Haemorrhagic Disease: This is a highly contagious disease and can be transmitted directly from infected rabbits or via contaminated food, equipment or clothing. Viral Haemorrhagic Disease is nearly always fatal and causes severe internal bleeding.

Parasite Control

Internal Parasites

Rabbits can be infected with a parasite called Encephalitzoon cuniculi (E.cuniculi). Preventative treatment can be given in the form of a liquid or paste available from your veterinary practice. See below for more information.

External Parasites

Fleas, Mites and Lice
These pests not only cause irritation to your rabbit, but they can also transmit Myxomatosis to your rabbit, so it is important to regularly treat your rabbit with a suitable product. Please speak to a veterinary nurse about suitable parasite control for your rabbit.

Daily Health Checks For Your Rabbits

Daily checks can easily be at home are a great way to make sure your rabbits are in tip top condition.

Nose: The nose should be clean and dry with no discharge. Any snuffling, discharge or crustiness may indicate a respiratory infection.

Mouth: Check that the upper and lower front teeth (incisors) meet properly in the middle and that they are not overgrown as this may prevent your rabbit from eating properly and could cause infections if the teeth are rubbing other areas of the mouth. Make sure there is no excess salivation or dribbling which may indicate that there is a problem with your rabbit’s teeth or gums.

Teeth: Should be nicely aligned, with the long incisors on the bottom and the top meeting in the middle and not overlapping.

Eyes: Should be clean, clear and bright. Any discharge could indicate an infection such as conjunctivitis or a blocked tear duct.

Ears: Should be clean and dry with no waxy or mucky discharge or crusting. Rabbit ears are very sensitive so if you think they need cleaning, it is a good idea to check with a veterinary nurse about what product to use and how to go about it. Never use cotton buds in rabbit ears.

Skin: Should look clean and healthy. Stroking your rabbit will help you feel for any lumps, bumps or wounds on the skin; if you find anything out of the ordinary make a note of exactly where it is before contacting your vet as small lumps can be difficult to find again! Flaky or dry skin could also indicate poor diet or a parasite problem,

Coat: Should look and feel clean and healthy. Most rabbits groom themselves really well so if you notice that your rabbit is not looking after him or herself this may indicate a health problem. Any mats that you find in the coat should be carefully groomed out because they will only become worse and very uncomfortable for your rabbit if they are left. Any signs of excessive moulting/shedding or any bald patches may indicate a parasite or health problem.

Feet: Should be clean and dry. Sore patches, urine staining or faecal matter on them may indicate a health problem (or that you need to clean out your rabbit’s toilet area more often!).

Nails: Make sure that your rabbit’s nails are not too long – nail clipping can be done at home if you have someone to help hold your rabbit for you. Your veterinary nurse can show you what to use and how to do it properly.

Bottom & Tail: Rabbits normally pass faecal pellets as well as the softer caecotrophs which they eat. Rabbits with consistently dirty bottoms may be suffering from an illness that causes loose faeces or diarrhoea, or they may be overweight and cannot groom themselves properly. Your rabbit’s bottom and tail area should be clean and dry with no mats or faecal matter stuck around it which could attract flies to lay their eggs on the rabbit leading to fly-strike. Dirty bottoms can be cleaned using cotton wool soaked in warm water and then thoroughly towel drying the area afterwards (do not use a hair dryer on your rabbit).

Movement: Look for any signs that your rabbit might be lame (limping) when moving about his or her hutch or exercise area, or that your rabbit is reluctant to exercise.

Breathing: Rabbits breathe a lot faster than we humans do. Check for any signs that your rabbit may be having difficulty, such as wheezing noises or panting which may indicate a respiratory problem or infection.

Eating and Drinking: Make sure your rabbit is eating and drinking well every day. It is important to remember that hay should make up at least 80% of your rabbit’s daily food intake; there are many varieties of hay available, so it should be easy to find one that your rabbit really enjoys.

If you notice anything out of the ordinary, or you think that your rabbit may be unwell, please contact your veterinary practice for advice or to make an appointment as soon as possible.

Rabbit vet

Common Health Problems In Rabbits

Gut Stasis: This is a very common but potentially lethal condition and if you suspect your rabbit has gut stasis you should contact your vet immediately. Gut stasis is a term used when the rabbit’s digestive system slows down or stops working completely. When the intestinal system stops working bacteria will build up in the intestines and release gas into the system, leading to very painful bloating. The rabbit may stop eating and drinking, which then makes the problem as it will become dehydrated and be missing out on essential nutrients and roughage The bacteria can also release toxins into the system which damage the liver. Gut stasis has many causes including poor diet, stress, pain and lack of exercise. Symptoms can include

  • Small, malformed faecal pellets or a lack of faecal pellets
  • Inappetance
  • Lethargy
  • Unwillingness to move
  • Bloated tummy.

Flystrike: Flies are attracted to faecal matter and lay their eggs in it, when the eggs hatch the maggots start eating away at the rabbit’s flesh; this is an extremely painful and distressing experience for the rabbit and requires immediate veterinary treatment. Flystrike can be prevented by

  • Ensuring your rabbit’s bottom is always clean and free from faecal matter
  • Keep the living and exercise spaces clean
  • Ensuring your rabbit is not overweight.

If your rabbit is at risk from flystrike a product called Rearguard can be used to help keep flies away – Ask your veterinary nurse for more information.

Dental Problems: Rabbit teeth grow continuously at a rate of approximately 2-3mm a week. In the wild rabbits gnaw on rough vegetation to wear their teeth down, but domestic rabbits are often not given enough roughage to enable them to do this, which is why it is very important that most of your rabbit’s diet is made up of hay and dried grass. Uneven wearing of the teeth can cause the formation of sharp tooth spurs can scrape the tongue and cheeks, causing pain and irritation. Rabbits suffering from teeth problems may have the following symptoms

  • Overgrown or misaligned teeth
  • Inappetance or picky appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Dribbling or drooling
  • Wet chin
  • Lump/Swelling on their face
  • Runny/watery eyes

See the rabbit and rodent dental problems blog for more information

E Cuniculi: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microscopic parasite that affects the brain and digestive system of rabbits. It can cause seizures, kidney disease, hind limb weakness, loss of vision and balance and a head tilt. E Cuniculi spores are shed in infected animals’ urine and transmission is usually by ingestion of contaminated food or water, but may also be from a pregnant mother to her babies. E. cuniculi can also infect people and other animals. Good hygiene and regular worming is important to prevent the spread of this parasite.

Obesity: It is thought that over 30% of pet rabbits in the UK are overweight. Obesity in rabbits is not just a cosmetic issue, it can affect the rabbit’s internal organs and joints and lead to other problems such as skin problems, guts stasis and fly strike because the rabbit cannot reach it’s bottom to clean itself.

Pet Health Club

Rabbit owners can join the Castle Vets Pet Health Club which includes annual vaccinations, year-round parasite control, free nail clipping and microchipping, as well as discounts on many of our services. We also recommend that you purchase pet insurance for your rabbit in case he or she becomes unwell.

Castle Vets Reading

Rabbit Links

There is so much to know about rabbit care that I could never fit it all into one post, so I have just focused on the basics. Here are some links to a few brilliant rabbit care websites.

Action For Rabbits

Rabbit Awareness Week

RSPCA Information Sheet 

House Rabbit Society


If you would like more advice on rabbit care or information about out pet health club please contact us on 0118 9574488

Rabbit Awareness – Feeding Rabbits for Good Health


Nutrition plays an enormous part in rabbit health and at Castle Vets we find that a poor diet can be responsible for many problems in pet rabbits including bad teeth, weight gain, poor gut motility, tummy upsets and bad skin.

Rabbits have cleverly evolved over thousands of years to extract all the nourishment they need from the poor quality vegetation available to them in the wild. This means that our pet rabbits require a diet that is low in calories and very high in fibre. If a rabbit is fed on a diet that is high in calories and low in fibre it can lead to problems with obesity, soft stools or diarrhoea, bone and tooth problems.

In order to look after your rabbits nutritional health you will need to provide the following,


Fresh, clean water should be available at all times. Even if your rabbits eat a lot of greens and may appear not to drink much, water must always be available. It can be provided in gravity bottles or in bowls (although bowls tend to become soiled very quickly). Bowls and bottles should be cleaned regularly and bottles should be checked for leakage.

Foodwhat rabbits should eat

The following three foods are listed in order of importance:

  1. HAY – low in calories, high in fibre.
  2. FRESH FOOD – medium calories, medium fibre.
  3. DRIED FOOD – high in calories, low in fibre.
1. Hay

Hay is the staple diet of your rabbits and should be fed AD LIB (as much as your rabbits will eat). The fibre that is in hay is extremely important as it helps keep the food moving through the gut. It also contains other essential proteins and nutrients. Rabbits eat small amounts of food several times throughout the day and good quality grass hay must be available in unlimited amounts at all times. Alfalfa hay should be avoided, as this can contain excessive calcium.

You can use the good quality hay that is sold in bales to feed horses or you can buy dried grass and hay from pet shops which will come in a variety of different types and ‘flavours’. Nice long strands of hay and dried grass are preferable because rabbits have to spend more time chewing the long fibres and this is better for their teeth and digestion. If you do buy large quantities of hay, make sure you store it carefully to prevent it becoming damp or mouldy – we find it lasts longer and stays fresher when stored in a plastic bin or box rather than in plastic bags.

The best way to offer fresh hay to your rabbits is by using a hayrack. This keeps the hay clean and eliminates much of the waste through hay getting trampled or soiled. As a rule there should be a small amount of hay left over each morning, then you know that you have made enough available for your rabbits.

types of hay feeder

Hay can be provided in may ways

 2. Fresh Foods

Vegetables – Vegetables should be given to your rabbits daily. The hay can lose some of its vitamins when the grass is dried, therefore it is important to supplement the hay diet with fresh greens. A minimum of 3 types of fresh vegetables should be given daily alongside the hay. Variety is the key so try and offer small amounts of several items. Young rabbits should be introduced to new foods gradually, a small piece at a time.

A carrot or other root vegetable can be suspended from the hutch roof; this helps to increase feeding time and also enriches the rabbit’s environment and creates an interesting feeder toy.

Fruits – Fresh fruit should only be given in small quantities due to the increased sugar content. Too much can lead to tooth decay and obesity problems. Apples, bananas, kiwis, melons, peaches, pears, pineapples, strawberries and tomatoes are all safe for rabbits.

gpig fruit and veg

two rabbits in a basket and vegetables

Only give your rabbit fresh fruit and vegetables. Don’t give your rabbit anything that isn’t fresh enough for you to eat yourself.

3. Dried Food

If a dried food is to be offered then a nutritionally balanced food, presented in a nugget form, can be offered every day. We don’t recommend a muesli or mixed flake diet because rabbits fed on these diets can become picky about which bits they eat and therefore may not receive a balanced diet. A pellet or nugget diet prevents picky eating and will ensure your rabbits are getting the right amount of nutrients.

A maximum of 20g per day is enough to feed a pair of adult rabbits of approximately 2.5kg bodyweight. It is important to accurately measure the amount of food to be fed. The aim is to keep adults at a constant weight so regular weighing of your rabbit is essential. Do not estimate the amount you should be feeding – overfeeding of dried food is one of the main causes of health problems in rabbits seen by veterinary surgeons. If your rabbit starts to put on too much weight, the amount of dried food he or she is receiving should be reduced. Vitamin supplements should not be necessary if your rabbits are getting a balanced diet and an indiscriminate usage of vitamins may lead to overdose and serious disease.

Bunny food types

Nugget-type food may look unappetising to you but it is much better for your rabbits than the muesli-type food

Food Toys

There are many food and boredom breaker toys available for rabbits. Some of these are made of tightly packed grass or hay and others are made from fruit wood. You can also by little ‘cages’ or containers to put fruit and vegetables in so that they hang from the top of the cage. Food toys will ensure your rabbit has lots of variety and provide mental stimulation.

rabbit enrichment toys

Some of the toys we like are both home made and shop bought

Natural Food and Grazing Opportunities

A run or grazing ark is essential to provide exercise and grazing for a few hours each day, weather permitting. If a garden is enclosed and rabbit proofed then your rabbits can be allowed free run of the garden. However, it is important to ensure protection from predators, either wild animals or other domestic pets. Safe plants such as Clovers and vetches can be planted for your rabbits to nibble on and can help provide variety to the diet. Please also be aware that some plants can be poisonous to rabbits, so make sure they do not have access to these.


How To Change Your Rabbit’s Diet

It is extremely important never to change your rabbit’s diet suddenly. Gradual changes should be made over a period of at least 2 weeks. This is to allow the rabbit’s digestive system time to adjust to the changes being made. Give your rabbit a healthier diet by introducing hay, grass and greens and change the dried food to a high fibre one as discussed above. Grass and greens should be introduced gradually to reduce the likelihood of diarrhoea.

Mix the new dried food in the same feeding bowl with the original food in a ratio of 1 measure of the new food to 3 measures of the original food. Feed this for 3-4 days to ensure your rabbits are eating all of it. Watch carefully for signs of loss of appetite, abnormally runny droppings, bloating and any changes in behaviour and demeanour as these may indicate that your rabbits are not adapting well to the new diet. If everything is normal, increase the quantity of the new dried food and decrease the quantity of the original food to give a ratio of half of the new food and half of the original food, again feeding this for 3-4 days and watching for any problems as before. If all is ok then increase the ratio to 3 measures of the new food to 1 measure of the original food for another 3-4 days, and finally 100% of the new dried food.

Useful links for rabbit care

Action For Rabbits

Rabbit Awareness Week

RSPCA Information Sheet 

House Rabbit Society


Free Rabbit Checks

Throughout May the nursing team at Castle Vets are offering FREE rabbit clinics for advice on rabbit care and welfare and nail clipping for any rabbits that need it.

We are also more than happy to chat to anyone who is thinking about getting some rabbits on how to look after them and the costs involved.

If you would like any information on rabbit health or have any questions, please contact us at the surgery on 0118 9574488 and we will be happy to help. You can also visit the Castle Vets Website

Rabbit Awareness May 2015


Rabbits are becoming ever more popular in the UK and they make wonderful pets for adults and supervised children. Rabbits are social, intelligent and inquisitive animals, who need owners that are prepared to spend plenty of time with them, provide plenty of space and lots of opportunities to play. Rabbits can be kept both indoors and outdoors and they are happiest when they have another rabbit for company and they should not be kept alone.

Free Rabbit checks

This year National Rabbit Awareness Week (RAW) runs from the 9th to the 17th May to promote awareness of rabbit health care issues. However, we don’t think a week is enough for these wonderful pets, so Castle Vets will be supporting the campaign for the whole of May. We will be offering Free Rabbit Checks along with free nail clips and health advice consultations for your rabbits with our veterinary nurses (by appointment only).

Rabbit Awareness Week

Our nurses can advise on all aspects of rabbit care, nutrition, housing, life enrichment, insurance, vaccinations and avoiding the summer problem of fly-strike. As well as giving your pets a check over and weigh-in, we will clip nails free of charge if they need doing.

Our veterinary nurses will also welcome anyone who is thinking of acquiring some rabbits and would like some information about how to care for rabbits and the potential costs involved.

So make your appointment and hop along to Castle Vets during May. Please call Castle Vets on 01189 574488 for an appointment or more information.

Over the next few weeks we will be posting some articles on rabbit care and nutrition so check back here soon.

Useful Rabbit Website Links

Rabbit Awareness Week

Rabbit Awareness Events Locator

Action For Rabbits

Rabbit Welfare Association & Fund